Adapted from M. M. Duguid and J. A. Goncalo, Living Large: The Powerful Overestimate Their Own Height.
In a study of power and self-image, participants were not told the true purpose of the study; instead, they
believed they were participating in a business simulation. Researchers randomly assigned participants to a highpower (n = 44) or low-power (n = 44) condition. In the high-power condition, participants recalled a time when
they had power over others, and in the low-power condition, they recalled a time when others had power over
them. Participants were asked to adjust the height (in centimeters) of an electronic graphical image (an avatar)
of themselves to reflect their personal appearance. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in
participants’ perceptions of their own height across the two conditions. Participants in the high-power condition
created taller self-images (mean = 6.0, standard deviation = 1.5) than participants in the low-power condition
(mean = 4.0, standard deviation = 1.0).
x Describe the levels of the independent variable.
x Describe how the researchers measured the dependent variable.
x Create a bar graph illustrating the results of the study. Correctly label each axis.
x Explain why the researchers can conclude that there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the
independent and dependent variables.
x Explain what statistical significance means in the context of the study.
x Explain why debriefing would be necessary in the study.