Researchers conducted a naturalistic study of children between the ages of 5 and 7 years. The researchers visited classrooms during class party celebrations. As a measure of hyperactivity, they recorded the number of times children left their seats. The researchers found a strong positive correlation between sugary snacks offered at the parties and hyperactivity. Based on these findings, the researchers concluded that sugar causes hyperactivity.
a). How might the following explain why people may easily accept the conclusion of the study described above?
x Confirmation bias
x Availability heuristic
x Misunderstanding of correlational studies
c). As a follow-up study, the researchers are designing an experiment to test whether sugar causes hyperactivity. For the experiment, please do the following.
x State a possible hypothesis.
x Operationally define the dependent variable.
x Describe how random assignment can be achieved.
c). Based on the results of the follow-up experiment described in Part B, researchers conclude that sugar does not cause any change in hyperactivity.
x Draw a correctly labeled bar graph depicting this result.